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By Charles Rhodes, P.Eng., Ph.D.

There are two methods of producing nuclear energy, fission and fusion. Both methods are explored on this web site.

From an electricity utility perspective nuclear energy obtained via fast neutron fission of heavy elements is the only source of non-fossil energy that can sustainably and economically provide the uninterruptible electric power on demand required to completely displace fossil fuels.

The sun is powered by fusion so renewable energy is actually fusion energy. However, renewable energy is intermittent. Renewable electricity generators require efficient daily and seasonal energy storage and long distance transmission to provide uninterruptible electric power. Frequently the cost of making renewable electricity uninterruptible is prohibitive. It is often more practical to price electricity at uninterruptible and interruptible rates so that applications that require uninterruptible electricity pay more per blended kWh than applications that operate using only interruptible electricity.

Advances in nuclear fission technology have rendered obsolete past concerns about nuclear safety, nuclear fuel usage inefficiency and nuclear waste disposal.

Other than via renewable energy, fusion based electricity generation is difficult and expensive to realize on Earth. For fundamental physical and thermodynamic reasons, as long as fission fuel is available, the cost of a kWhe from Earth based fusion will always be several times the cost of a kWhe from Earth based fission. The economic opportunity for Earth based fusion, if any, is for enhancing breeding of start fuel for fast neutron fission reactors.

1. Nuclear Motivation 2. Nuclear Technologies
3. Sustainable Nuclear Power 4. Modular Reactors
5.Electricity Generation Reactors 6. Reactor Design Constraints
1. CANDU Reactors 2. Fast Neutron Reactors
3. Molten Salt Reactors 4. FNR Safety
5. FNR Siting 6. FNR Initial Fuel Sources
7. Ottensmeyer Plan 8. Ottensmeyer Plan Detail
9. Ottensmeyer Plan Implementation 10.
11. FNR Material Recycling 12. Non-Proliferation
13. FNR Specifications 14. FNR Design
15. FNR Mathematical Model 16. FNR Fuel Rods
17. FNR Fuel Tubes 18. FNR Fuel Tube Wear
19. FNR Fuel Bundle 20. FNR Primary Liquid Sodium Flow
21. FNR Heat Exchange Tubes 22. FNR Safety Analysis
23. FNR Control 24. FNR Reactivity
1. 2.
3. Radiation Safety 4. Nuclear Waste Categories
5. Nuclear Waste Disposal 6. Helium-3 Recovery
7. NWMO / OPG 8. Nuclear Waste Dry Storage
9. Nuclear Waste Containers 10. Porcelain
11. Nuclear Waste Container Seals 12. Seepage
13. DGR Ventilation 14. Jersey Emerald
15. DGR Closing Remarks 16. Nuclear Waste Disposal Press Release
17. Nuclear Education 18. Presentation Notes
19. Pickering Advanced
Recycle Complex (PARC)
20. Letter To Federal Political Leaders
21. Letter to Minister of Environment
and Climate Change, Ontario
22. Letter to Mininster of Environment
and Climate Change, Canada
23. U of T 17-02-09 Slide Presentation 24. U of T Presentation
Fusion section is currently being reconstructed.
Please examine this section at a later date.
1. PIF Glossary 2. Nuclear Fusion Prospect
3. Plasma Impact Fusion 4. Nuclear Fusion Engineering Considerations
5. D-T Fusion Fuel 6. Spherical Compression Part A
7. Adiabatic Compression 8. Fusion Output
9. Liquid Lead Constraints 10. Spherical Compression Part B
11. Random Plasma Properties 12. PIF Process
13. Liquid Lead Shell Formation 14. Pressure Vessel
15. Port Valves 16. Process Timing
17. Tritium Breeding18.
19. Spheromak Compression 20. Real Plasma Spheromaks
21. Spheromak Generator 22. Plasma Spheromak Lifetime
23. Vacuum Pumping Constraints 24. Liquid Lead Pumping
1. Micro Fusion Introduction 2. Micro Fusion FAQ
3. Micro Fusion Energy Flows 4. Micro Fusion Economics
5. Micro Fusion Regulatory Hurdles 6. Alumina Cylinder
7. Micro Fusion International

It is the intent of this author to eventually produce web pages addressing all of the above mentioned topics.

This web page last updated June 28, 2017.

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