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The following links are provided for user convenience. The linked web sites are believed to be operated and maintained by reputable parties. However, this author cannot vouch for the information contained on the linked web sites.


This website provides on-line engineering education with respect to energy and climate change matters. Other websites that provide related engineering / physics training information include:

Future of Energy Initative

Web site of Dr. Alex Pavlak

On Line Engineering Training

On-Line Engineering Education

Do It Yourself information relating to "green" energy.

Engineering Degree.org


A web site that contains useful direct links to many scientific papers relating to the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is:
James Zachos Publications


RBS THEORY Stopping Power

Energy Loss of Energetic Ions Stopping Power Theory

Non-relativistic Rutherford Scattering Link

NACRE Astrophysical S-factor and fusion reaction cross-section

Some Nuclear Reactions Link

Lithium-6 Reactions Link

Lithium-7 Reactions Link

Solar models and NACRE thermonuclear reaction rates, P. Morel, B. Pichon, J. Provost, G. Berthomieu, Astron. Astrophys. 350, 275-285 (1999) Link

Radiation Risk Radiation Units



Neutron interaction cross section data required for design of Fast Neutron Reactors Kaye & Laby

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Stopping power and range table data for protons and alpha particles (H and He-4 nuclei)

SRIM-2003 Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter Link

US Nuclear Reaction Data Network (USNRDN) Reaction and Astrophysical S-Factor Data For Charged Particle Reactions involving H-1, H-2, H-3, He-3, He-4, Li-6, Li-7, B-11

National Nuclear Data Center Experimental Nuclear Reaction Data (EXFOR / CSISRS)

Physique Nucleaire Theorique et Physique Mathematique file unification with European Nuclear Astrophysics Compilation of Reaction Rates (NACRE) Reactions and Astrophysical S-Factor Data for reactions involving: H-1,H-2, H-3, He-3, He-4, Li-6, Li-7,Be-7

K. Langanke, T.D.Shoppa, C.A. BArnes and C. Rolfs, Phys. Lett. B369 (1996) 211-214 Helium-3 - Deuterium S Factor

R.G. Pizzone et Al, Indirect measurements of lithium isotopes destruction cross section in astrophysical environment, Mem. A.A.It. Suppl. Vol. 3, 70, copyright SAIt 2003 Link

Discovery of Li - H reaction by John D. Cockroft and Ernest T. S. Walton at Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge, England, 1929 Link

J.P. Allain, D.N.Ruzic, Nuclear Fusion volume 42,(2002), 202-210, Institute of Physics Publishing and International Atomic Energy Agency Measurements and Modelling of Solid Phase Lithium Sputtering

Michael E. Gehm Properties of Li-6

A. Grossman, R.P. Doerner, S. Luckhardt Surface tension enhancement of TRIM sputtering yields for liquid metal targets

J.P. Allain, D.N. Ruzic, Deuterium Uptake Effects on Liquid Metal Sputtering

R.P. Doerner et al Measurements of erosion mechanisms from solid and liqid materials in PISCES-B

H.W. Kugel et al Lithium vapor pressure versus temperature

J. Timberlake Molten lithium creep

V. A. Evtikhin et al Desorption of deuterium

X.R. Wang et al lithium vapor pressure density limit

R. Kaita et al Liquid Lithium Limiter Effects on Tokamak Plasmas and Plasma-Liquid Surface Interactions

J.P. Allain, M.D. Coventry, D.N. Ruzic Kinematic and thermodynamic effects on liquid lithium sputtering

Thermal Conductivity

Cooling Towers: Design and Operation Considerations

University of Oregon The Observed Properties of Liquid Helium at the Saturated Vapor Pressure



Helium Properties

Properties of Materials

Properties of Aluminum

Properties of Teflon

Properties of Kalrez and Viton

Properties of Fused Quartz

National Electronic Alloys Inc. Properties of Kovar

Ferro-Ceramic Grinding Inc. Ceramic Properties Tables

Steven J. Zinkle, Materials Challenges for Fusion Energy, The Bridge, Volume 28, Number 4, - Winter 1998 Link

Heavy Water Production

Alistair I. Miller, AECL Heavy Water: A Manufacturers' Guide for the Hydrogen Century

Oak Ridge Colex Process

Federation of American Scientists Colex Process

DOE Facts enriched lithium hydroxide inventories

R.P Doerner et al. / Journal of Nuclear Materials 290-293 (2001) 166-172 Measurements of erosion mechanisms from solid and liquid materials in PISCES-B

A. Zuttel et al. / Journal of Power Sources 118 (2003) 1- 7 LiBH4 a new hydrogen storage material

A Review of Hydrogen Storage Systems Based On Boron And Its Compounds Link

Tom Roberts, Illinois Institute of Technology, 8/12/2002 Lithium Hydride Issues

Lithium Hydride Crystal Stiffness and Compressibility

Ruiming Ren et al Stability of Lithium Hydride in Argon and Air

Y12 Report Investigation of Cracked Lithium Hydride Reactor Vessels

International Chemical Safety Cards Lithium Hydride Safety

U,S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety & Health Administration Lithium Hydride Chamical Sampling Information

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene

National Institute of Standards and Technology 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene

Scott Specialty Gases 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene Material Safety Data Sheets

NIST Chemistry Web Book Thermophysical Properties of Fluid Systems

Flexware Properties of Various Gases

Air Ship Study (PDF Version) High Voltage Breakdown Through Helium

Air Ship Study (HTML Version) High Voltage Breakdown Through Helium



Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Heavy Water, Tritium Extraction

Barber-Nichols, Inc. Radial Inflow Turbo-alternator

Brush Wellman Beryllium Copper Strip

Globe Core Transformer Oil Reclamation

High Temp Metals, Inc. Tungsten Technical Data

Midwest Tungsten Service Tungsten Sheet

Cambridge Isotope Laboratories, Inc. Isotopes

Spectra Gases, Inc. Gaseous Isotopes

Chemgas Helium-3

Kinectrics Inc. Cryogenic Hydrogen and Helium Isotope Separation

Ontario Power Generation Isotopes

CRYOMECH Cryorefrigerators

Glassman High Voltage Inc. Regulated High Voltage DC Power Supplies

Electronic Space Products International LiH Material Safety Data Sheet

Analytyka Lithium Hydride Properties and Protection

Chemical Land21 Lithium Hydride Properties

IPCS Inchem Lithium Hydride Properties

ITT Lithium Properties

Lenntech Lithium data sheet

Solvay SF6 and N2 data

Enervac Corporation Gas recovery equipment

Paratherm NF Data sheets

Dow Heat Transfer Fluids Dowtherm RP Fluid

American Cast Iron Pipe Company Large diameter ductile iron and steel pipe

Howell Pipe & Supply Pipe and fittings

Venus Trading Company Pipe Fittings

Cole-Parmer Instrument Company Pipe Fittings

eBigChina DIN standard malleable iron Pipe Fittings

OnlineMetals.com Stainless Steel

Victaulic Grooved Pipe Fittings

American Seal & Packing Expanded Teflon Gaskets

World of Molecules Teflon

Apple Rubber Products, Inc. O Rings

Marco Rubber and Plastic Products Inc. kalrez, viton and teflon O ring seals, sheet viton, sheet teflon

Scientific Instrument Services, Inc. Viton and Kalrez O rings, copper gaskets, gold foil gaskets, vacuum flanges

Inderchand Rajgarhia & Sons (P) Ltd Properties of Mica

Dow Chemical Company Process piping specifications for high temperature heat transfer systems

National Scientific Company Pyrex and quartz tubing

Corning Incorporated Thermal Properties of Corning Glasses

MTI Corporation Alumina Ceramic Tube

National Electronic Alloys Inc. Kovar

Sandfire Scientific Ltd. Glass Blowing and Fabrication

Morgan Advanced Ceramics Ceramic supply and fabrication

Insaco Inc. Ceramic Machining

Varian Inc. Vacuum pumps

Alchemy Art Lead Products Lead Shielding Material

Magnetic Component Engineering, Inc. Ring permanent magnets

EngConcepts More ring permanent magnets

Magnetics div. of Spang & Co. Toroidal Cores

US Steel USS Cold Rolled Motor Lamination Sheet

Sko-Die Inc. Custom Lamination Stamping

Tatung Large motor dimensions

Electric Motor Warehouse NEMA Frame Guide

Vescor Dimensions For Electric Motors

Leeson Motor Types and Mechanical Considerations

Dow Corning 561 Silicone Transformer Liquid

Eagle Burgmann Industries Magnetic Couplings

Liquid Tight Strain Relief, Cord Grips Fittings, Cable Glands, Circular Connectors

AIC Inc. Stainless steel shell and tube heat exchangers

United Concrete Products, Inc. Manholes

Delta Cooling Towers, Inc. Fluid Cooler

Colmac Coil Manufacturing Inc. Fluid Cooler Design Data

General Air Products Fluid Coolers

Baltimore Air Coil Company Closed Circuit Cooling Towers

Tristate Apogee Absorption Chillers

NGK Insulators Ltd. Sodium Sulfur Batteries



US Industrial Directory MacRAE's Blue Book

Canadian Industrial Directory Canadian Trade Index

Canadian Suppliers Directory Fraser's Directory

Metal Suppliers' Directory Online Metals.com



Dinorwog Pumped Storage in the UK

240-MW Niagara Pumped Storage at Niagara Falls

Bath County Pumped hydraulic power station (2100-MW)

Racoon Mountain Pumped Storage Plant

Racoon Mountain Cross Section



Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) Nuclear Safety Regulations and Inspections

Electrical Safety Authority (ESA) Electrical Inspections

Electrical Safety Authority (ESA) Electrical Regulations

Technical Standards and Safety Authority (TSSA) Pressure Vessel Approval

Independent Electrical System Operator (IESO) Electrical Grid Connection and Operation Issues

Ontario Power Authority (OPA) Electric Power Planning and Purchasing

Ontario Energy Board (OEB) Electricity and Natural Gas Rate Approvals, Regulations

Ontario Ministry of Energy (MOE) Ontario Government Energy Policy

Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA)

Canadian Environmental Assessment Registry Internet site (the DGR 1 Registry)



Ontario Power Generation (OPG) DGR 1 Environmental Impact Statement

Pipeline Safety Trust (PST) pstrust.org

Ontario Society of Professional Engineers (OSPE) 2011 TOU Rate Submission to the OEB



In Russia a 600 MWe fully functional prototype liquid sodium cooled FNR known as the BN600 was built and successfully operated from about 1984 to 2016. See 600 MWe LIQUID SODIUM COOLED POWER REACTOR



Video of Lecture Course on Global Warming by David Archer of the University of Chicago, Fall 2009



Consequences of Greenhouse Gas Emissions



Atmospheric CO2 Concentration Graph

Atmospheric CO2 Concentration Table

Antarctic Ice Core Data



World Natural Gas Production 2003

World Coal Production 2004

World Oil Supply 2005

Oil Units and Properties

Carbon Dioxide



Solubility of Carbon Dioxide in Sea Water

Bicarbonate Concentration in Great Lakes Water

Area, Average Depth and Volume of Oceans

Carbonate Equilibria In Natural Waters

Calcium Concentration in Sea Water and Conversion of Calcuim Bicarbonate to Calcuium Carbonate in the Temperature Range 25 C to 40 C

Experimental Measurement of Sea-Water Bicarbonate Density

Carbon Dioxide in the Ocean

The Chemical Composition of Seawater

Seawater Composition



Solar Irradiance Data Overview

Solar Irradiance

The Spectrum of the Solar Irradiance



Planetary Albedo

Best Planetary Albedo Value

Albedo Range

Disk Averaged Earth's Reflectance Spectra

The Atmospheric Absorption Spectrum

Atmospheric Extinction

Blue Sky



Content and Basic Properties of the Atmosphere

Air Composition

The Atmospheric Absorption Spectrum

Infrared absorption spectra of carbon dioxide, water, ozone, nitrous oxide and methane

Carbonic acid production in H2O:CO2 ices




Infrared Spectroscopy

Earth Radiance (Tropical Clear Sky)

IRIS Description

Spectral Range of IRIS on Nimbus 4 satelite

Nimbus 3 IRIS Operational April 14, 1969 to July 22, 1969, Nimbus 4 IRIS Operational April 8, 1970 to April 14, 1971

NIMBUS 4 IRIS data good until January 30, 1971

Nimbus 3 IRIS Spectral Resolution = 5cm^-1, Nimbus 4 IRIS Spectral Resolution = 1.4 cm^-1

Consolidation of 9268 IRIS thermal IR spectra for the equatorial ocean published in Ph.D. thesis of Xianglei Huang, April 2004, pages 3 to 6, 14, 35 and 47.

High resolution thermal emission spectroscopy equipment for satelite use

Infrared Thermal Emission Spectrum of the Earth

What IS TES?

TES Mission Highlights

The First TES Data!

Initial Data from the Mars Global Surveyor thermal emission spectrometer experiment:Observations of the Earth

Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer experiment: Investigation description and surface science results

Absorption band

Stratospheric Ozone Chemistry

Earth Thermal Spectrum



Graph of Temperature versus Height

Properties of Air vs Altitude



Warming Trend in Atmospheric Temperatures in Canada

Average Temperatures in Canada



Columbia Icefield

Jasper National Park of Canada

Columbia Icefield and Athabasca Glacier Data



Sea Level Rise

Actic Sea Ice Thickness

National Snow and Ice Data Center

Greenland Glacier Melting Rate




Julia Rhodes

Charming Penguin Productions

Charming Penguin Productions

Julia Rhodes at Miran Media

Fisher Shotokan

Karate Ontario History

Ontario Karate Federation

SFU Physics Reunion September 10, 2015



PRINCIPLES OF PLASMA DIAGNOSTICS, Second Edition by I.H.Hutchinson, 2002, ISBN-10 0-521-67574-X paperback, 2005, Cambridge University Press.

FROM PARTICLES TO PLASMAS Lectures honoring Marshall N. Rosenbluth, Edited by James W. Van Dam, Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc., ISBN 0-201-15680-6, Copyright 1989 by Addison-Wesley Publishing Company

Cauldrons in the Cosmos, Nuclear Astrophysics, by Claus E. Rolfs and William S. Rodney, University of Chicago Press, Copyright 1988.

Introduction to Nuclear Physics by Harald A. Enge, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc., 1966.

Table of Isotopes by C.M. Lederer, J.M. Hollander and I. Perlman, John Wiley and Sons, 1967.

CRC Handbook of Chemsitry and Physics, 63rd Edition, CRC Press Inc. 1982-1983

Letters and Reports provided to C. Rhodes by AECL

Climate Change And Sustainable Energy, by John Houghton, 11 May 2005, Met Office, Hadley Centre, FitzRoy Road, Exeter EX1 3P8 UK

An Inconvient Truth,The Planetary Emergency Of Global Warming And What We Can Do About It, By Al Gore, 2006.

Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal Physics by F. Reif, 1965, McGraw-Hill

Hothouse Earth, The Greenhouse Effect And Gaia,by John Gribbin,1990, ISBN 0-8021-1374-5



United States Patent 6,654,433 dated November 25, 2003. Inventors: Boscoli; Renzo (Palata Pepoli, IT) Link


This web page last updated January 27, 2017

Home Energy Nuclear Electricity Climate Change Lighting Control Contacts Links