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By Charles Rhodes, P. Eng., Ph.D.

Energy is the basic substance of the universe. Everything is composed of energy. This website section reviews the natural laws that govern the behavior of energy and hence the evolution of the universe.

An electromagnetic spheromak is a naturally occurring electromagnetic structure that stores energy. Electrons and protons are spheromaks. The Planck Constant, which relates the size of a radiant energy quantum to its frequency, arises from a relative energy minimum that occurs at a particular ratio of spheromak outside diameter to inside diameter.

Spheromak theory may seem challenging, but it is fundamental to thermal radiation, quantum mechanics, nuclear energy, chemical energy and ordered plasma energy.

Energy Basics

Energy Balance

Basic Physical Laws

Basic Physical Concepts Part A - Relativity, Energy & Momentum

Basic Physical Concepts Part B - Energy Aggregation

Basic Physical Concepts Part C - Work

Basic Physical Concepts Part D - Rigid Bodies

Energy Composition of Matter

Solar Energy

Solar System History

Energy Sources

Vector Identities

Field Theory

Quantum Mechanics

Spheromaks - Introduction

Charge Hose Properties

Spheromak Structure

Theoretical Spheromak

Electromagnetic Spheromak

Spheromak Energy

Planck Constant

Magnetic Flux Quantum

Plasma Spheromak

Atomic Particles

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

Atomic Electrons


This web page last updated May 1, 2017.

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