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**INTRODUCTION:**

Energy and charge are the fundamental constituants of the universe. Everything that exists has some amount of energy. Energy can neither be created nor destroyed but it can be changed in form.

Energy primarily exists in two forms, particles and radiation. A particle is a local accumulation of energy, usually associated with a quantum charge, which exhibits inertial mass and which moves at less than the speed of light with respect to the observer. Particles have a relatively high energy density at their nominal location but that energy density decreases rapidly with increasing distance from that location. Radiation consists of electromagnetic waves that propagate at the speed of light and fill the universe.

Matter consists of quantum charges, static electromagnetic fields and confined radiation. In a charged particle a quantum charge circulates around a closed path at the speed of light. The static electromagnetic fields associated with the quantum charge and its circulation establish the particle's geometry and contain a small fraction of the particle's rest mass energy. Most of a particle's rest mass energy is contained within one or more packets of electromagnetic radiation confined by the particle. A particle may also have kinetic energy related to its center of mass motion relative to other particles and/or the observer.

The circulating quantized charge spontaneously forms stable toroidal shaped structures known as spheromaks. These spheromaks are non-propagating solutions to electromagnetic field equations. A spheromak concentrates and stores the energy associated with its charge quantum. A closed spiral charge string of length Lh has a corresponding natural frequency:

Fh = C / Lh.

The spheromak's electric and magnetic fields extend to infinity but contain only finite amounts of energy with respect to field free space. Spheromaks interact with one another via overlap of their extended electric and magnetic fields. Interacting spheromaks convert field potential energy into kinetic energy or vice versa. During such interactions spheromaks can emit or absorb quanta of electromagnetic radiation (photons), which have zero net charge.

Over time particles gradually aggregate and in so doing convert part of their static field energy into radiation, which is usually lost by emission into deep space.

Deep space is full of radiation. There is radiation directly emitted by hot stars and there is the cosmic background radiation which has an equivalent thermal radiation temperature of about 2.7 degrees K. The equivalent temperature of the cosmic background radiation seems to indicate that either the universe has expanded over time or that the experience of time has accelerated over the life of the universe, or both. Planet Earth continuously absorbs warm solar radiation and continuously emits thermal infrared radiation into deep space at an average temperature of about 270 degrees K. The primary thermal infrared radiation emission mechanism is the liquid to ice phase transition of high altitude water droplets.

Application of the laws of electromagnetism shows that any change in energy dE stored by an isolated spheromak is proportional to the spheromak's change in natural frequency dFh, via the formula:

dE = h dFh

where h is known as the Planck constant. However, h is not an independent physical constant. In reality h is a function of the charge quantum Q, the speed of light C and the permiability of free space Muo. The Planck Constant h arises because the spheromak operates at a stable state which occurs at a particular ratio of spheromak torus outside diameter to torus inside diameter and at a particular ratio of toroidal and poloidal spiral turns.

Stable elementary charged particles such as electrons and protons store some electromagnetic energy in static field spheromaks. However most of the stored energy is contained in high frequency radiation photons that is confined by the spheromak walls.

At low particle kinetic energies the charged particle electric and magnetic fields prevent the particles coming close enough to each other for the confined photons to participate in an interparticle interaction. However, at higher particle kinetic energies the confined photons can participate in what we term nuclear reactions.

The formula:

dE = h dFh

leads to the equation:

Ep = h Fp
which relates the amount of energy Ep transferred between a particle and radiation to the radiation frequency Fp,

where:

dE ~ Ep

and

dFh = Fp

Thus the energy and frequency of a photon of absorbed or emitted radiant energy are closely related to the changes in energy and frequency of the spheromak which emits or absorbs the photon.

Net emission of energy via photons causes previously free spheromaks to become mutually bound to one another in an electromagnetic potential energy well. That is the nature of chemical bonding. When spheromaks merge they emit confined photons (gamma rays) which we term nuclear energy.

Matter is composed of large numbers of mutually bound spheromaks. An assembly of mutually bound spheromaks having zero net charge forms a local potential energy well. Local potential energy wells weakly interact with each other over very long distances via gravity. General relativity indicates that gravity is a distortion of space-time caused by the local energy density. However, for most practical calculations gravity can be approximated by a change in potential energy with position caused by an imaginary field associated with the local energy density.

This website section reviews the natural laws that govern the behavior of charge and energy and hence the evolution of the universe.

Basic Physical Concepts Part A - Relativity, Energy & Momentum

Basic Physical Concepts Part B - Energy Aggregation

Basic Physical Concepts Part C - Work

Basic Physical Concepts Part D - Rigid Bodies

This web page last updated October 27, 2018.

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