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By Charles Rhodes, P. Eng., Ph.D.

This web site section addresses the energy realm between objects larger than quarks and objects smaller than galaxies.

Energy is sometimes defined as "capacity to do work". However, that definition of energy is too narrow. Energy is one of the fundamental building blocks of the universe. Everything that exists has some amount of energy.

Energy exists in two forms, particles and radiation.

Quantized charge locally circulating at the speed of light enables the existence of stable energy packets known as particles.

A particle is a packet of energy which has a nominal relative position, a nominal relative velocity, has energy at rest and moves in the observer's frame of reference at less than the speed of light.

A particle has a high energy density near its nominal position and an energy density which decreases rapidly with increasing distance from that nominal position. The region of decreasing energy density surrounding a particle's nominal position is known as its field. A particle's total energy integrated over all space is constant and finite.

A particle can move relative to other particles and interact with them but the total system energy integrated over all space remains constant. Hence the total system energy is the sum of the individual free particle energies.

At any point in space the field components of separate particles add vectorially. The local energy density (energy per unit volume) has mathematically orthogonal electric, magnetic and gravitational vector field components and a particle motion component.

Particles interact with each other via their fields. That interaction converts field energy into kinetic energy (motion energy). In certain circumstances that kinetic energy can become radiant energy which after emission leaves the particles mutually bound in a potential energy well.

Radiation consists of energy carrying wave-like field disturbances which propagate at the speed of light and which, if not guided or confined, eventually spread through the entire universe.

Power is a rate of flow of energy through a surface. Examples are electric power, thermal power, mechanical power and radiant power. Mass flow is a special category of energy flow because, except in nuclear reactions, the rest mass remains constant.

A spheromak is a local non-propagating solution to well known electromagnetic field equations. Spheromaks enable the existence of isolated quantum charged particles such as electrons and protons. A spheromak concentrates and stores the energy associated with its charge quantum.

A spheromak is a stable toroidal shaped structure consisting of a circulating charge quantum, static electromagnetic fields and a confined radiation energy packet known as a gamma photon. A spheromak's static electric and magnetic fields extend to infinity but contain only finite amounts of energy. These static fields contain a small fraction of a particle's rest mass energy.

Most of a spheromak's rest mass energy is contained within a gamma photon confined by the spheromak's toroidal walls. A spheromak may also have kinetic energy related to its motion relative to other spheromaks and/or the observer.

Spheromaks interact with one another via overlap of their extended fields. Interacting spheromaks convert field potential energy into center of mass kinetic energy or vice versa. During such interactions spheromaks can emit or absorb photons which are quanta of electromagnetic radiant energy which have zero net charge.

At low particle kinetic energies interaction between the spheromaks' extended fields prevents the particles coming close enough to each other for the confined gamma photons to participate in the interparticle interactions. However, at high particle kinetic energies the confined gamma photons can cause spheromak restructure in what we term nuclear reactions.

Net emission of radiation photons by interacting spheromaks causes formation of mutual potential energy wells which tend to bind the spheromaks together.

Deep space is full of low level electromagnetic radiation. There is visible radiation directly emitted by stars with surface temperatures of 5800 deg K and there is the cosmic background radiation with an equivalent thermal radiation temperature of about 2.7 degrees K. Planet Earth continuously absorbs visible spectrum radiation from the sun and continuously emits thermal infrared radiation into deep space at an average temperature of about 270 degrees K. This emitted thermal radiation temperature is primarily set by the liquid to ice phase transition of air borne water droplets.

The processes that convert high temperature radiant energy into lower temperature radiant energy, other than absorption and re-emission by matter, are theoretical and are somewhat speculative.

The net charge Qs of a spheromak circulates within the spheromak's toroidal shaped wall at speed of light C around a complex closed spiral path of length Lh. Hence a spheromak has a natural frequency Fh given by:
Fh = C / Lh.

Any change in energy dE stored by an isolated spheromak is proportional to the spheromak's change in natural frequency dFh, via the formula:
dE = h dFh
where h is known as the Planck constant. However, h is not an independent physical constant. In reality h is a function of the charge quantum Q, the speed of light C and the permiability of free space Muo and the spheromaks geometrical shape.

The formula:
dE = h dFh
leads to the equation:
Ep = h Fp which relates the size of the quantum of energy Ep absorbed or emitted to the radiation frequency Fp where:
dE ~ Ep
dFh = Fp.
Thus the energy and frequency of a photon of absorbed or emitted radiant energy are closely related to the changes in energy and frequency of the spheromak which emits or absorbs the photon.

Matter is composed of large numbers of mutually bound spheromaks. An assembly of mutually bound spheromaks having zero net charge exists within a local mutual potential energy well. The long range interaction between electrically neutral collections of particles in mutual potential energy wells is known as gravity.

General relativity assumes that gravity is a distortion of space-time caused by the local energy density. However, more precisely gravity is due to the change in the vacuum zero energy reference level with respect to position caused by the presence of electrically neutral potential energy wells. These potential energy wells result from net emission of photons during their accumulation of mass.

This website section reviews the natural laws that govern the behavior of charge and energy and hence the evolution of the universe.

Energy Basics


Energy Balance

Basic Physical Laws

Basic Physical Concepts Part A - Relativity, Energy & Momentum

Basic Physical Concepts Part B - Energy Aggregation

Basic Physical Concepts Part C - Work

Basic Physical Concepts Part D - Rigid Bodies

Energy Composition of Matter

Solar Energy

Solar System History

Energy Sources

Vector Identities

Field Theory

Spheromaks - Introduction

Quantum Mechanics

Charge Hose Properties

Spheromak Structure

Theoretical Spheromak

Electromagnetic Spheromak

Spheromak Energy

Spheromak Shape Parameter

Planck Constant

Neutral Spheromak

Magnetic Flux Quantum

Spheromak Magnetic Moment

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

Confined Photons

Plasma Spheromak

Atomic Particles

Atomic Electrons



This web page last updated February 16, 2019.

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