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**INTRODUCTION:**

This web site section addresses the energy realm between objects larger than quarks and objects smaller than galaxies.

During the 19th century energy was defined as "capacity to do work". However, that definition of energy is too narrow. Energy is one of the fundamental building blocks of the universe. Everything that exists has some amount of energy.

Energy exists in two forms, particles and radiation.

A particle is a stable packet of energy which in the frame of reference of an inertial observer: has a non-zero energy at rest, at a particular instant in time has nominal position and velocity vectors and the velocity less than the speed of light. A free particle has a quantized net charge.

A particle exists when a quantized net charge forms an electric current which locally circulates around a complex closed path at the speed of light. A particle generally contains a trapped locally circulating radiation energy quantum known as a photon. Interaction of a particle with its corresponding anti-particle often results in release of the photons. Similarly, photons with sufficient energy can form particle-antiparticle pairs.

A particle has an energy density near its nominal position which decreases rapidly with increasing distance from that nominal position. The region of decreasing energy density surrounding a particle's nominal position is known as its field. A free particle's total energy integrated over all space is constant and finite.

A particle can move relative to other particles and can interact with other particles via field overlap but the total system energy integrated over all space remains constant. At every point in space the field components of separate particles add vectorially. At every point in space the local energy density (energy per unit volume) has mathematically orthogonal electric, magnetic and gravitational vector field components and a particle motion component.

Particles interactions convert part of the field energy into kinetic energy (motion energy). In certain circumstances that kinetic energy can become radiant energy which after emission leaves the particles mutually bound in a potential energy well. Hence the total system energy, including emitted radiation, is the sum of the individual isolated particle energies.

Radiation consists of energy carrying wave-like field disturbances which propagate at the speed of light and which, if not guided or confined, eventually spread through the entire universe.

Power is a rate of flow of energy through a surface. Examples are electric power, thermal power, mechanical power, radiant power and rest mass flow. When no particles pass through the surface the rest mass flow is zero. However, there can still be a radiant energy power flow through the surface.

**SPHEROMAKS:**

A spheromak is a local non-propagating solution to well known electromagnetic field equations. Spheromaks enable the existence of isolated quantum charged particles such as electrons and protons. Spheromaks also account for the interactive behavior between atomic electrons and nuclei. Inter-spheromak interactions account for most nuclear particle behaviour. A spheromak concentrates and stores the energy associated with its charge quanta.

A quantum charged spheromak is a stable toroidal shaped structure consisting of a circulating charge quantum, static electromagnetic fields and a confined radiation energy packet known as a confined photon. A spheromak's external static electric and magnetic fields can extend to infinity but contain only finite amounts of energy. These extended static fields contain only a small fraction of a particle's rest mass energy.

Most of a spheromak's rest mass energy is contained in a photon confined by the spheromak's toroidal walls. A spheromak may also have kinetic energy related to its motion relative to other spheromaks and/or the observer.

Spheromaks interact with one another at a distance via overlap of their external fields. Interacting spheromaks convert field potential energy into kinetic energy or vice versa. During such interactions spheromaks can emit or absorb photons which are quanta of electromagnetic radiant energy which have zero net charge.

At low particle kinetic energies interaction between the spheromaks' extended fields prevents the particles coming close enough to each other for the confined photons to participate in the interparticle interactions. However, at high particle kinetic energies the confined photons can cause spheromak restructure in what we term nuclear reactions.

Net emission of radiation photons by interacting spheromaks causes formation of mutual potential energy wells which tend to bind the spheromaks together. By this means particles bind together to form atomic nuclei, electrons bind to nuclei, atoms bind together to form compounds and molecules bind together to form solids and liquids.

**RADIATION:**

Deep space is a sea of low energy density electromagnetic radiation known as the cosmic background which has an equivalent thermal radiation temperature of about 2.7 degrees K. Superimposed on the cosmic background there are small angular variations and there is radiation directly emitted by stars with surface temperatures of about 5800 deg K. Planet Earth continuously absorbs solar spectrum radiation from the sun and continuously emits thermal infrared radiation into deep space having an average temperature of about 270 degrees K. This emitted thermal radiation temperature is primarily set by the top of cloud liquid to ice phase transition of air borne water droplets.

The astro-physical processes that converted high temperature radiant energy into low temperature radiant energy, other than via energy absorption and re-emission by cool matter, are theoretical and are somewhat speculative.

The net charge Qs of a spheromak circulates within the spheromak's toroidal shaped wall at speed of light C around a complex closed spiral path of length Lh. Hence a spheromak has a natural frequency Fh given by:

Fh = C / Lh.

Any change in energy dE stored by an isolated spheromak is proportional to the spheromak's change in natural frequency dFh, via the formula:

dE = h dFh

where h is known as the Planck constant. However, h is not an independent physical constant. In reality h is a function of the charge quantum Q, the speed of light C and the permiability of free space Muo and the spheromaks geometrical shape.

The formula:

dE = h dFh

leads to the equation:

Ep = h Fp
which relates the size of the quantum of energy Ep absorbed or emitted to the radiation frequency Fp where:

dE ~ Ep

and

dFh = Fp.

Thus the energy and frequency of a photon of absorbed or emitted radiant energy are closely related to the changes in energy and frequency of the spheromak which emits or absorbs the photon.

**MATTER AND GRAVITY:**

Matter is composed of large numbers of spheromaks bound in mutual potential energy wells. Assemblies of mutually bound spheromaks with zero net charge exist within mutual potential energy wells. The long range interaction between electrically neutral potential energy wells is known as gravity.

General relativity assumes that gravity is a distortion of space-time caused by the local energy density. However, more precisely gravity is due to the change in the vacuum zero energy reference level with respect to position caused by the presence of electrically neutral potential energy wells. These potential energy wells result from net emission of photons during their accumulation of rest mass.

This website section reviews the natural laws that govern the behavior of charge and energy and hence the evolution of the universe.

Basic Physical Concepts Part A - Relativity, Energy & Momentum

Basic Physical Concepts Part B - Energy Aggregation

Basic Physical Concepts Part C - Work

Basic Physical Concepts Part D - Rigid Bodies

This web page last updated December 27, 2019.

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