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By Charles Rhodes, P. Eng., Ph.D.

Isolated closed spiral strings of quantized charge circulating at the speed of light C can be regarded as the basic substance of the present universe. Each closed spiral string of quantized charge has a continuous path through space-time. Associated with each such closed spiral string of quantized charge are electric, magnetic and gravitational fields that extend to infinity but that contain only finite amounts of energy.

The closed spiral strings of quantized charge naturally form stable toroidal shaped structures known as spheromaks. A spheromak concentrates and stores the energy associated with a charge quantum. The closed spiral charge string length Lh has a corresponding natural frequency:
Fh = C / Lh.
The amount of energy stored by a spheromak is proportional Fh.

Elementary particles such as electrons and protons store electromagnetic energy in concentric spheromaks.

Spheromaks interact with one another via overlap of their extended fields. In order to conserve both energy and momentum in such interactions spheromaks emit or absorb photons, which are propagating quanta of electromagmetic energy. The energy and frequency of a photon is related to the change in energy and frequency of the photon emitting spheromak.

The Planck Constant, which relates the amount of energy in a photon to the photon frequency, arises from the relative energy minimum that occurs at a particular ratio of spheromak torus outside diameter to inside diameter.

Matter is composed of stable clusters of spheromaks. Radiation is propagating energy emitted by interactions between spheromaks. This website section reviews the natural laws that govern the behavior of charge and energy and hence the evolution of the universe.

Spheromak theory may seem challenging, but it is fundamental to thermal radiation, quantum mechanics, atomic energy, chemical energy and ordered plasma energy.

Energy Basics

Energy Balance

Basic Physical Laws

Basic Physical Concepts Part A - Relativity, Energy & Momentum

Basic Physical Concepts Part B - Energy Aggregation

Basic Physical Concepts Part C - Work

Basic Physical Concepts Part D - Rigid Bodies

Energy Composition of Matter

Solar Energy

Solar System History

Energy Sources

Vector Identities

Field Theory

Spheromaks - Introduction

Quantum Mechanics

Charge Hose Properties

Spheromak Structure

Theoretical Spheromak

Electromagnetic Spheromak

Spheromak Energy

Planck Constant

Magnetic Flux Quantum

Spheromak Magnetic Moment

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

Concentric Spheromaks - Speculations on Particle Structure

Plasma Spheromak

Atomic Particles

Atomic Electrons


This web page last updated March 27, 2018.

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