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**INTRODUCTION:**

Energy is a fundamental constituant of the universe. Everything that exists has some amount of energy. Energy can neither be created nor destroyed but it can be changed in form.

Our universe contains a very large number of closed spiral strings of quantized charge. Each charge string continuously circulates around its closed spiral path at the speed of light C. Associated with each closed spiral path are electric and magnetic fields which extend to infinity but which contain only finite amounts of energy with respect to electromagnetic field free space.

The closed spiral strings of circulating quantized charge spontaneously form stable toroidal shaped structures known as spheromaks. These spheromaks are non-propagating solutions to Maxwell's equations. A spheromak concentrates and stores the energy associated with its charge quantum. A closed spiral charge string of length Lh has a corresponding natural frequency:

Fh = C / Lh.

Application of the laws of electromagnetism shows that any change in energy dE stored by a spheromak is proportional to the spheromak's change in frequency dFh, via the formula:

dE = h dFh

where h is known as the Planck constant. However, as shown on this web site, h is not an independent physical constant. In reality h is a function of the charge quantum Q, the speed of light C and the permiability of free space Muo. The Planck Constant h arises because the spheromak operates at a relative energy minimum which occurs at a particular ratio of spheromak torus outside diameter to torus inside diameter and at the corresponding ratio of toroidal and poloidal spiral turns.

Stable elementary charged particles such as electrons and protons store some electromagnetic energy in static field spheromaks. However most of the stored energy is contained in photons that are confined by the spheromak walls.

Spheromaks interact with one another via overlap of their extended electric and magnetic fields. Interacting spheromaks convert field potential energy into kinetic energy or vice versa. During such interactions spheromaks can emit or absorb photons, which are propagating quanta of electromagnetic energy having zero net charge.

At low particle kinetic energies the charged particle electric and magnetic fields prevent the particles coming close enough to each other for the confined photons to participate in an interparticle interaction. However, at higher particle kinetic energies the confined photons can participate in what we term nuclear reactions.

The formula:

dE = h dFh

leads to the equation:

Ep = h Fp
which relates the amount of energy Ep carried by a photon to the photon frequency Fp,

where:

dE ~ Ep

and

dFh = Fp

Thus the energy and frequency of a photon are closely related to the changes in energy and frequency of the spheromak which emits or absorbs the photon.

Net emission of energy via photons causes previously free spheromaks to become mutually bound to one another in an electromagnetic potential energy well. That is the nature of chemical bonding. When spheromaks merge they emit confined photons (gamma rays) which we term nuclear energy.

Matter is composed of large numbers of mutually bound spheromaks. An assembly of mutually bound spheromaks having zero net charge forms a local potential energy well. Local potential energy wells weakly interact with each other over very long distances via gravity. General relativity indicates that gravity is a distortion of space-time caused by the local energy density. However, for most practical calculations gravity can be approximated by a change in potential energy with position caused by an imaginary field associated with the local energy density.

This website section reviews the natural laws that govern the behavior of charge and energy and hence the evolution of the universe.

Basic Physical Concepts Part A - Relativity, Energy & Momentum

Basic Physical Concepts Part B - Energy Aggregation

Basic Physical Concepts Part C - Work

Basic Physical Concepts Part D - Rigid Bodies

This web page last updated September 11, 2018.

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