# XYLENE POWER LTD.

## BASIC PHYSICAL LAWS

#### By Charles Rhodes, P. Eng., Ph.D.

INTRODUCTION:
This web page summarizes how a few basic physical laws govern the evolution of the universe.

PHYSICAL LAWS:
Modern science rests on belief in the existence of a set of physical laws, which are independent of position and time, that govern the evolution of the universe. These physical laws account for the behavior and interaction of all observeable objects. From a religious perspective, these physical laws are an expression of the will of God. The physical laws are consistent with the existence of the universe and the evolution of life as we know it. Were that not the case, we would not exist.

The physical laws are described by mathematical equations. At the microscopic level these equations have multiple discrete real solutions known as energy states. The existence of multiple real solutions for the energy of a particle makes evolution somewhat non-deterministic and gives life forms a limited degree of free will. The survival of human beings on Earth will depend on how humans exercise their limited free will.

KEY PHYSICAL LAWS:
From the perspective of an observer an object at nominal relative position X at a relative time t has a characteristic energy E, a characteristic linear momentum P and a characteristic charge Q. In an isolated system multiple objects can interact while the system maintains a constant aggregate total energy, a constant aggregate total linear momentum and a constant aggregate total charge.

The maintenance of a constant aggregation of energy by an isolated system is known as the law of conservation of energy.

The maintenance of a constant aggregation of linear momentum by an isolated system is known as the law of conservation of linear momentum.

The maintenance of a constant aggregation of electrical charge is known as the law of conservation of electrical charge.

About the year 1905 Albert Einstein added another inportant law which states that the speed of light is the same for all inertial observers.

More recently we have been able to assert that static field energy density has three mathematically orthogonal vector components, the electric field component, the magnetic field component and the gravitational field component. The field energy density is the sum of the squares of the three vector components.

The gravitational field unit vector is imaginary so that the gravitational field energy density is negative.

Total particle energy is the sum of the particle's non-electro magnetic (NEM) energy and the electromagnetic energy.

Physical reality is described by the distribution of energy in three dimensional space and time;

Elapsed time is measured by clocks that count stable electromagnetic wave oscillations as ticks.

The registration of elapsed time is dependent on the relative motion of clocks.

PARTICLES:
The physical reality of particles is further described by:
a) Static vector electric fields which are functions of the spacial distribution of charge.
b) Static vector magnetic fields which are functions of the spacial distribution of electric current;
c) Static vector gravitational fields which are functions of the spacial distribution of energy;
d) The net static field vector at any position is the linear sum of its vector components;
e) The static field energy density which has orthogonal electric, magnetic and gravitational vector field components;
f) The kinetic energy distribution related to energy motion (momentum);
g) Field energy readily converts into kinetic energy and vice-versa;
h) There is a natural stable electromagnetic structure known as a spheromak which forms as a result of charge motion along a closed path;
i) Spheromaks enable the existence of quantum charged particles such as electrons, protons and atomic nuclei;
j) A free atomic charged particle such as an electron or an atomic nucleus is a stable packet of energy containing quantized net charge in integral multiples of 1.602 X 10^-19 coulombs.

PHOTONS:
Physical realities of photons are:
a) A change in electric field induces a magnetic field;
b) A change in magnetic field induces an electric field;
c) These two effects together enable the existence of propagating electromagnetic radiation;
d) A photon is a quantum of propagating electromagnetic energy;
e) Charge quantization in combination with a stable electromagnetic spheromak energy structure results in quantization of emitted photon energy;
f) Assemblies of particles emit and absorb thermal radiation photons causing a spacial distribution of electromagnetic radiant energy;
g) The low photon energy density in outer space enables net emission of thermal radiation from the Earth;

The spacial distributions of neutrinos and gravitons;

ASSEMBLIES OF PARTICLES:
a) The various atomic nuclei and free nuclear particles are stable and semi-stable energy states corresponding to different numbers of contained positive and negative charge quanta.
b) Atoms are assemblies of electrons and atomic nuclei that are bound together by overlap of the particles extended electric and magnetic fields.
c) Simple two-particle structures include positronium (an semi-stable electron-positron pair) and a hydrogen atom. Deuterium, tritium, helium and heavier atoms involving more particles are progressively more complex.
d) Molecules are assemblies of atoms that are nominally charge neutral but are bound together by overlap of atomic electric and magnetic fields.
e) Solids are assemblies of molecules that are very weakly bound together by overlap of molecular electric and magnetic fields;
f) Ions are atoms or molecules that are missing one or more electrons per nucleus or that have one or more extra electrons per nucleus.

UNSTABLE ASSEMBLIES:
a) A quantum system with multiple real solutions having different energies allows changes of energy state that are not possible in classical mechanics.
b) A free neutron is an unstable particle with no net charge, emitted by an atomic nucleus, that with a half life of about 18 minutes spontaneously decays into an electron, proton and neutrino.
c) Natural radioactivity is the result of an atomic nucleus spontaneously transitioning from a high potential energy state to a lower potential energy state, by randomly emitting a particle and/or a photon.

MULTIPLE LOCALLY STABLE STATES:
There are various macroscopic physical systems that have multiple stable states. Such physical systems are widely used to form computer memory. Each state corresponds to a number. Uncertainty about the evolution of energy state occupancy causes us to be uncertain about both the past and the future. However, this uncertainty also gives life forms a limited degree of free will.

ANTHROPIC PRINCIPLE:
A basic principle relating to physical laws as they apply to our local universe is that these laws must be consistent with the evolution of human life. Otherwise we would not exist to make physical observations.

An unresolved issue is whether the physical laws in combination with quantum randomness and environmental changes on Earth were sufficient to initiate cellular life or whether early cellular life forms were delivered to Earth by meteorites from outer space.

LIFE:
Life forms consist of complex assemblies of atoms and molecules with long range order that are able to successfully reproduce copies of themselves, that are able to successfully repair minor damage to their long range order and that retain long range order for periods ranging up to hundreds of years. Long range order maintenance and reproductive coding is enabled in part by use of similar repeating structures known as DNA molecules and cells. The capability of cellular organization for mutual support and mutual repair we refer to as the "spirit". Life forms require externally supplied energy for growth and maintenance of long range order. If the "spirit" is lost the life form dies and the long range order is soon lost. Life forms usually evolve to limit their energy requirements to the energy supply available in the environment in which they exist.

The larger animal species also have genetically coded desires for mutual defense, reproduction, parental support and teaching of young progeny. These desires enable the species continued existence. Larger animals rely on parental support and instruction of the young, particularly in matters related to defense and obtaining sufficient energy (food) for survival.

One of the most remarkable aspects of animal life is the genetically coded operating system that enables maintenance of long range order and infant learning. A fetus acquires some "spirit" soon after conception and aquires more "spirit" at birth.

The manner in which "spirit" is transmitted from parent to child via DNA genetic code is far from obvious. It is comparable to the operating system of a very advanced computer.

The dominance of mankind on Earth has been enabled in part by his success in obtaining and harnessing much more energy per person than the minimum necessary for his biological maintenance in a mild climate.

The organization of human society for common benefit is the object of rules of behavior such as are set out in the Bible Old Testament in the Ten Commandmants and in the Bible New Testament in Jesus Two Commandments. Failure to adhere to these rules of behavior frequently leads to conflict between humans.

This web page last updated November 27, 2020.