|Home||Energy||Nuclear||Electricity||Climate Change||Lighting Control||Contacts||Links|
The material contained on this web page is logical speculation but remains to be rigorously mathematically proven. It is believed that atoms are stable minimum electromagnetic energy states and do not rely on the concepts of particle orbiting, inertial mass and centrifugal force for structural stability. In the ground state quantum electron charges move at the speed of light along closed paths which form spheromaks.
SPHEROMAK THEORY OF ATOMIC ELECTRONS:
Elsewhere on this web site it is shown that free electrons are single quantum charge spheromaks. A logical extension of that theory is that a hydrogen atom is a proton inside a single 1 electron spheromak. We need to show that is a minimum energy stable structure with a binding energy of 13.6 eV. ie:
(free proton energy) + (free electron energy) - (hydrogen atom energy) = 13.6 eV
Then a stable helium atom is a helium nucleus inside two stacked 1 electron spheromaks. In a He atom one quantum of negative charge moves clockwise (CW) around the common spheromak major axis and the other quantum of negative charge moves counter clockwise (CCW) around the common spheromak major axis. The combined CW and CCW negative charge movement minimizes the net poloidal magnetic field which is a minimum energy state for the atom. These two spheromaks form a stable core for the atoms Li, Be, B, C, N, O, F
The atom Li consists of a stable 2 spheromak He electron core plus a surrounding single electron spheromak.
Then the atom Be consists of the stable 2 spheromak He electron core plus two surrounding spheromaks each with one electron. One of these electrons moves CW and the other CCW so that the two new spheromaks cancel their poloidal magnetic fields.
Then the atoms B, C, N, O consist of two multi-electron spheromaks around the stable 2 spheromak He electron core. As further quantum electron charges are added to the outer spheromaks the charges alternately move CW and CCW around the spheromak major axis to minimize the net poloidal magnetic field of the assembly. Note that the outer spheromaks are linearly larger than the inner spheromaks and hence contain less energy per quantum charge.
As the atomic number increases the radial electric field in the spheromak core increases which forces the linear size of the inner spheromaks to increase. At F and Ne the inner and outer spheromaks merge to form two (8 + 2) / 2 = 5 electron spheromaks. There is now a new stable two spheromak inner core corresponding to Ne. Each of these new stable inner core spheromaks has 5 electron charges.
At Na a new outer spheromak starts to form.
At Mg a second outer spheromak forms cancelling the poloidal magnetic field of the other outer spheromak.
The atoms Al, Si, P, S consist of two concentric multi-electron spheromaks around the inner 2 spheromak core of Ne. The inner 2 spheromak core has the ten quantum electron charges that are associated with Ne. The outer spheromaks have the quantum electron charges associated with Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S. As quantum electron charges are added to the outer spheromaks the charges alternately move CW and CCW around the major axis to minimize the net poloidal magnetic field of the assembly.
At Cl one of the outer spheromaks merges with one inner spheromak to form a (10 + 8) / 2 = 9 electron spheromak.
At Ar the other outer spheromak merges with the other inner spheromak to form a (10 + 8) / 2 = 9 electron spheromak.
There is now a new stable pair of inner spheromaks each with 9 electrons. This assembly is argon.
A new pair of outer spheromaks forms starting at K which contain the electrons for elements up to Kr.
K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Br (17 members + Kr)
At Br and Kr the inner and outer spheromaks again merge to form a stable pair of 18 electron spheromaks.
This stable pair of spheromaks is Kr.
A new pair of outer spheromaks forms starting at Rb which contain the electrons for elements up to XeRb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Te, I (17 members + Xe)
At Xe the inner and outer spheromaks again merge to form a pair of single (36 + 18) / 2 = 27 electron spheromaks.
A new pair of outer spheromaks form starting at Cs which contain the electrons for elements up to Ra.
Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, Po, At, Rn, Fr (33 members + Ra)
At Ra the inner and outer spheromaks merge to form a new stable pair of (54 + 34) / 2 = 44 electron spheromaks.
A new pair of outer spheromaks form starting at Ac which contain electrons for the elements:
Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm, Bk, Cf, Es, Fm, Md, element Z= 102, Lw, element Z = 104, and heavier elements.
Thus atomic spheromak pairs that contain in total 2, 10, 18, 36, 54 and 88 electrons are highly stable and correspond to inert gases. In each case successive atomic number increments form new multi-electron spheromaks.
Note that chemists refer to the groups of elements ending in an inert gas as electron "shells". These "shells" are in reality atomic numbers between highly stable spheromak pairs.
As the positive charge on the nucleus increases the central electric field affecting both the inner and outer spheromaks increases. Hence the inner spheromak and outer spheromak dimensions both change in size as the atomic number increases. With increasing atomic number the inner spheromaks gets linearly larger and eventually overlap and merge with the outer spheromaks. The larger number of electrons in the merged spheromaks increases the spheromak winding current which corresponds to smaller spheromak Rc (inside wall radius) and Rs (outside wall radius) values. Hence the merged spheromaks have a reduced Rc values.
Recall that the essence of spheromak stability theory is that the energy density in the toroidal region is less than the energy density in the adjacent surrounding regions. As the radius from the atomic nucleus to a spheromak increases the radial electric field from the nucleus decreases and the spheromak's toroidal magnetic field must change to match. This issue imposes boundary conditions on the inner and outer spheromaks that set the spheromak sizes and numbers of component electron charges. Increasing the number of electrons in a spheromak increases the winding current which reduces the Rc value. At increasing radii from the nucleus the spheromak's linear size increases which reduces its toroidal magnetic field strnegth. The energy density in the radial electric field must be approximately balanced by the toroidal magnetic field energy density at radii R = Rc and R = Rs.
There are two types of chemical bonding, ionic bonding and co-valent bonding.
In ionic bonding an electron jumps from one atom to another and in so doing reduces the total energy of the two atoms. The resulting molecule is bonded by an electric field and has a charge dipole.
In co-valent bonding atoms bond because electron spheromaks take the configuration corresponding to twice the individual nuclear charge. For example, pairs of hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen atoms co-valently bond to form a H2, N2 and O2 gas molecules. Carbon forms long chain molecules and benzene rings. In effect the electron spheromaks behave as if the two nuclei are superimposed.
Two hydrogen atoms can bond together with the nuclei sitting at the centers of thier respective spheromaks. The electrons take the He configuration.
In theory two boron atoms might co-valently bond while sitting in the middle of two stable 5 electron spheromaks in the Ne configuration. However, this bonding may be rejected by spheromak size collapse.
Two carbon atoms can co-valently bond while sitting in the middle of two 5 electron inner spheromaks and two 1 electron outer spheromaks.
Two nitrogen atoms can co-valently bond while sitting in the middle of two 5 electron inner spheromaks surrounded by two 2 electron outer spheromaks.
Two oxygen atoms can co-valently bond sitting in the middle of two 5 electron inner spheromaks surrounded by two 3 electron outer spheromaks.
In theory two fluorine atoms might co-valently bond while sitting in the middle of two stable 9 electron spheromaks in the Ar configuration. However, this bonding may be rejected by spheromak size collapse.
Stable co-valent bonding is limited to the low atomic number elements.
In a spheromak each quantum electron charge has a characteristic string length or frequency. In a multi-electron spheromak the change in spheromak energy per unit change in spheromak frequency is independent of the number of electrons forming the spheromak. Hence when two spheromaks merge the change in merged spheromak energy per unit change in frequency is unchanged. Hence the measured Planck constant is independent of the number of quantum charges comprising the spheromak.
TOROIDAL MAGNETIC FIELD:
We need to consider the direction of the toroidal magnetic field with respect to the poloidal magnetic field of each spheromak as the relative directions of the toroidal magnetic fields will likely affect the tendencey of spheromak pairs to bond into stable structures and the tendency of adjacent spheromaks to merge.
This web page last updated May 5, 2016.
|Home||Energy||Nuclear||Electricity||Climate Change||Lighting Control||Contacts||Links|