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The material contained on this web page is logical speculation but remains to be rigorously mathematically proven. It is believed that atoms are stable minimum electromagnetic energy states and do not rely on the concepts of particle orbiting, inertial mass and centrifugal force for structural stability. In the ground state quantum charges move at the speed of light along closed paths which form spheromaks.
A spheromak is an electromagnetic structure analogous to a glazed doughnut. The shape is toroidal. There is a region inside the doughnut glaze where the magnetic field is toroidal. There is a region outside the doughnut glaze where the magnetic field is poloidal. Current follows a closed spiral path within the glaze layer. The glaze also has a net charge.
SPHEROMAK THEORY OF ATOMIC ELECTRONS:
Elsewhere on this web site it is shown that free electrons are single quantum charge spheromaks with a confined photon. A logical extension of that theory is that a hydrogen atom is a proton inside a single 1 electron spheromak. We need to show that is a minimum energy stable structure with a binding energy of 13.6 eV. ie:
(free proton energy) + (free electron energy) - (hydrogen atom energy) = 13.6 eV
Then a stable helium atom is a helium nucleus inside a two electron spheromak. In a He atom one quantum of negative charge moves clockwise (CW) around the common spheromak major axis and the other quantum of negative charge moves counter clockwise (CCW) around the common spheromak major axis. Both electrons move the same direction around the toroidal axis. The combined CW and CCW negative charge movement minimizes the net poloidal magnetic field which is a minimum energy state for the atom. This structure forms a stable core for the atoms Li, Be, B, C, N, O, F
The atom Li consists of a stable 2 electron spheromak core plus a surrounding single electron spheromak.
Then the atom Be consists of the stable 2 electron spheromak core plus a surrounding spheromak with 2 electrons. One of these electrons moves CW and the other CCW so that the two additional electrons cancel their poloidal magnetic fields.
Then the atoms B, C, N, O form multi-electron spheromaks around the stable 2 spheromak He electron core. As further quantum electron charges are added to the outer spheromak the charges alternately move CW and CCW around the spheromak major axis to minimize the net poloidal magnetic field of the assembly. Note that the outer spheromak is linearly larger than the inner spheromak and hence contains less energy per quantum charge.
As the atomic number increases the radial electric field in the spheromak core increases. At F and Ne the inner and outer spheromaks merge. There is now a new stable inner core corresponding to Ne.
At Na a new outer spheromak starts to form.
At Mg a second electron cancels the poloidal magnetic field of the other outer spheromak.
The atoms Al, Si, P, S form a multi-electron spheromak around the inner Ne spheromak core. The inner spheromak core has the ten quantum electron charges that are associated with Ne. The outer spheromak has the quantum electron charges associated with Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl. As quantum electron charges are added to the outer spheromak the charges alternately move CW and CCW around the spheromak major axis to minimize the net poloidal magnetic field of the assembly.
At Ar the outer spheromak merges with the other inner spheromak to form a stable (10 + 8) = 18 electron spheromak.
There is now a new stable inner spheromak with 18 electrons. This assembly is argon.
A new outer spheromak forms starting at K which can confine the electrons for elements up to Kr.
K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Br (17 members + Kr)
At and Kr the inner and outer spheromaks again merge to form a stable 36 electron spheromak.
This stable spheromaks is Kr.
A new outer spheromak forms starting at Rb which contains the electrons for elements up to XeRb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Te, I (17 members + Xe)
At Xe the inner and outer spheromaks again merge to form a (36 + 18) = 54 electron spheromak.
A new outer spheromak forms starting at Cs which contains the electrons for elements up to Ra.
Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, Po, At, Rn, Fr (33 members + Ra)
At Ra the inner and outer spheromaks merge to form a new stable (54 + 34) = 88 electron spheromak.
A new outer spheromak forms starting at Ac which contain electrons for the elements:
Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm, Bk, Cf, Es, Fm, Md, element Z= 102, Lw, element Z = 104, and heavier elements.
Thus atomic spheromaks that contain in total 2, 10, 18, 36, 54 and 88 electrons are highly stable and correspond to inert gases. In each case successive atomic number increments form new multi-electron spheromaks.
Note that chemists refer to the groups of elements ending in an inert gas as electron "shells". These "shells" are in reality atomic numbers between highly stable spheromaks.
As the positive charge on the nucleus increases the central electric field affecting both the inner and outer spheromaks increases. Hence the inner spheromak and outer spheromak dimensions both change in size as the atomic number increases. With increasing atomic number the inner spheromaks and outer spheromaks eventually overlap and merge. The larger number of electrons in the merged spheromaks increases the spheromak winding current which corresponds to smaller spheromak Rc (inside wall radius) and Rs (outside wall radius) values. Hence the merged spheromaks have a reduced Rc values.
Recall that the essence of spheromak stability theory is that the average energy density in the toroidal region inside the spheromak wall is less than the energy density in the adjacent surrounding regions. As the radius from the atomic nucleus to a spheromak wall increases the radial electric field from the nucleus decreases and the spheromak's toroidal magnetic field must change to match. This issue imposes boundary conditions on the inner and outer spheromaks that set the spheromak sizes and numbers of component electron charges. Increasing the number of electrons in a spheromak increases the winding current which reduces the Rc value. At increasing radii from the nucleus the spheromak's linear size increases which reduces its toroidal magnetic field strength. The energy density in the radial electric field must be approximately balanced by the toroidal magnetic field energy density at radii R = Rc and R = Rs.
There are two types of chemical bonding, ionic bonding and co-valent bonding.
In ionic bonding an electron jumps from one atom to another and in so doing reduces the total energy of the two atoms. The resulting molecule is bonded by an electric field and has a charge dipole.
In co-valent bonding atoms bond because electron spheromaks take the configuration corresponding to twice the individual nuclear charge. For example, pairs of hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen atoms co-valently bond to form a H2, N2 and O2 gas molecules. Carbon forms long chain molecules and benzene rings. In effect the electron spheromaks behave as if the two nuclei are superimposed.
Two hydrogen atoms can bond together with the nuclei sitting at the centers of thier respective spheromaks. The electrons take the He configuration.
In theory two boron atoms might co-valently bond while sitting in the middle of two stable 5 electron spheromaks in the Ne configuration. However, this bonding may be rejected by spheromak size collapse.
Two carbon atoms can co-valently bond while sitting in the middle of two 5 electron inner spheromaks and two 1 electron outer spheromaks.
Two nitrogen atoms can co-valently bond while sitting in the middle of two 5 electron inner spheromaks surrounded by two 2 electron outer spheromaks.
Two oxygen atoms can co-valently bond sitting in the middle of two 5 electron inner spheromaks surrounded by two 3 electron outer spheromaks.
In theory two fluorine atoms might co-valently bond while sitting in the middle of two stable 9 electron spheromaks in the Ar configuration. However, this bonding may be rejected by spheromak size collapse.
Stable co-valent bonding is limited to the low atomic number elements.
In a spheromak each quantum electron charge has a characteristic charge string length or frequency. In a multi-electron spheromak the change in spheromak energy per unit change in spheromak frequency is independent of the number of electrons forming the spheromak. Hence when two spheromaks merge the change in merged spheromak energy per unit change in frequency is unchanged. Hence the measured Planck constant is independent of the number of quantum charges comprising the spheromak.
TOROIDAL MAGNETIC FIELD:
We need to consider the direction of the toroidal magnetic field with respect to the poloidal magnetic field of each spheromak as the relative directions of the toroidal magnetic fields will affect the tendency of spheromak pairs to bond into stable structures and the tendency of adjacent spheromaks to merge.
This web page last updated October 15, 2018.
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