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A common quantum charged particle is an electron. The quantum charge of an electron is distributed over the current filament of a position localizing spheromak. The spheromak structure gives an electron its electromagnetic field properties.
A single electron spheromak has a stable quasi-toroidal electromagnetic structure comparable in shape to an axially elongated glazed doughnut. In the region inside the doughnut glaze the magnetic field is toroidal. In the region outside the doughnut glaze the magnetic field is poloidal. Viewed with the main axis of symmetry vertical the toroidal cross section is elliptical, about twice as high as it is wide. There is an electric current resulting from quantized net charge circulating at the speed of light along a closed path within the doughnut glaze layer. This closed path has an integer number Np of poloidal turns and an integer number Nt of toroidal turns. Spheromak current path geometry requires that for each electron these integers be connected via a common prime number P where:
dNt + 2 dNp = 0
P = Nt + 2 Np
However, a multi-electron spheromak is an intuitively more complicated structure because about half of the electron charges exhibit a poloidal charge motion vector which is opposite to the other half. It is helpful to think of a multi-electron spheromak as a superposition of single electron spheromak electric and magnetic field vectors instead of as multiple classical particles.
An electron also has associated with it rest mass energy beyond that contained in its spheromak electromagnetic fields. This Non-Electro-Magnetic (NEM) energy, causes most of the particle's inertia and gravitation. The NEM energy is formed from photon energy during production of an electron-positron particle pair and reverts to photon energy during annihilation of an electron-positron particle pair.
At normal particle energy levels significant interactions between particles occur only via overlap of spheromak electromagnetic fields. This generalization is not true for very high energy nuclear particle interactions but is satisfactory for the technical scope of this web site.
SPHEROMAK THEORY OF ATOMIC ELECTRONS:
Electrons tend to seek stable minimum electromagnetic energy states. For a single electron in its the ground state the quantized net charge moves at the speed of light along a closed path which forms the electron spheromak. The structure of a spheromak is governed by prime numbers related to its current path geometry. Each potential spheromak current path has a characteristic prime number P. Adding an additional electron to an atom's atomic structure may cause the other electron spheromaks to adopt a new prime numbers. Chemists term the electron spheromaks of atoms as "shells" and the stable electron configurations as "inert" elements.
A logical extension of spheromak theory is that a hydrogen atom is a proton centrally positioned inside a single 1 electron spheromak. It is a minimum energy stable structure with a binding energy of about 13.6 eV. ie:
(free proton energy) + (free electron energy) - (hydrogen atom energy) = 13.6 eV.
A stable helium atom is a helium nucleus inside a stable two electron spheromak. In a He spheromak one electron has a current path that moves its negative charge quantum clockwise (CW) around the common spheromak major axis and the other electron has a current path that moves its negative charge quantum counter clockwise (CCW) around the common spheromak major axis. Both electrons have current path components that move their negative charge quanta in the same direction around the toroidal axis. The combined CW and CCW negative charge movement minimizes the net poloidal magnetic field which is a minimum energy state for the He atom. The He electron configuration forms a stable core for the Li, Be, B, C, N, O, F spheromaks.
The atom Li consists of a stable He spheromak core plus a surrounding single electron spheromak.
Then the atom Be consists of the stable He spheromak core plus a surrounding 2 electron spheromak. One of these surrounding electrons moves charge CW and the other moves charge CCW so that the two additional electrons cancel their poloidal magnetic fields while the toroidal magnetic field vectors add.
This pattern continues. The atoms Li, Be, B, C, N, O, F form a spheromak coaxial with the stable 2 electron spheromak core. As quantum electron charges are added to the outer spheromak the charges alternately move CW and CCW around the spheromak major axis to minimize the net poloidal magnetic field of the assembly while increasng the toroidal magnetic field vector. Note that the outer spheromak must be linearly larger than the inner spheromak and hence contains less electromagnetic field energy per quantum of charge.
As the atomic number increases the radial electric field through the inner spheromak increases. At Ne the inner and outer spheromaks merge to form a new inner core corresponding to the stable Ne electron configuration.
At Na a new outer spheromak starts to form around the stable Ne core.
At Mg a second electron cancels the poloidal magnetic field component of the other outer spheromak.
The atoms Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl form a new larger spheromak around the stable inner Ne spheromak core. The inner Ne spheromak has the ten quantum electron charges that are associated with Ne. The outer spheromak has the additional quantum electron charges associated with Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl. As quantum electron charges are added to the outer spheromak the charges alternately move CW and CCW around the spheromak major axis to minimize the net poloidal magnetic field of the assembly.
At Ar the outer spheromak merges with the other inner spheromak to form a new stable (10 + 8) = 18 electron Ar spheromak core.
A new outer spheromak forms starting at K which can confine the electrons for elements up to Br.
K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Br (17 members + Kr)
At Kr the inner and outer spheromaks again merge to form a stable 36 electron spheromak core.
A new outer spheromak forms starting at Rb which contains the electrons for the elements up to IRb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Te, I (17 members + Xe)
At Xe the inner and outer spheromaks again merge to form a stable (36 + 18) = 54 electron Xe spheromak core.
A new outer spheromak forms starting at Cs which contains the electrons for elements up to Ra.
Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, Po, At, Rn, Fr (33 members + Ra)
At Ra the inner and outer spheromaks again merge to form a new stable (54 + 34) = 88 electron Ra spheromak core.
A new outer spheromak forms starting at Ac which contains electrons for the elements:
Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm, Bk, Cf, Es, Fm, Md, element Z= 102, Lw, element Z = 104, and heavier elements. In these atoms the electrons are not tightly bound to the nuclei. Hence these atoms exhibit multiple chemicl oxidation states.
Thus atomic multi-electron spheromak structures that contain 2, 10, 18, 36, 54 and 88 electrons are highly stable and correspond to the chemically inert elements. In each case successive atomic number increments form new surrounding spheromaks.
Note that chemists refer to the groups of elements ending in an inert gas as electron "shells". The chemically inert elements have highly stable electron spheromak structures.
As the positive charge on a nucleus increases the central electric field affecting both the inner and outer spheromaks increases. Hence the inner and outer spheromak dimensions both change in size as the atomic number increases. With increasing atomic number the inner and outer spheromaks eventually merge to form stable spheromaks at the inert elements. The larger number of electrons in the merged spheromaks increases the effective spheromak toroidal magnetic field which corresponds to a physically smaller spheromak Rc (inside wall radius) and Rs (outside wall radius) values.
Recall that the essence of spheromak stability theory is that the field energy density in the toroidal region inside the spheromak wall is less than the field energy density in the surrounding region outside the spheromak wall. As the radius from the atomic nucleus to a spheromak wall increases the radial electric field from the nucleus decreases and the spheromak's toroidal magnetic field must change to match. This issue imposes boundary conditions on the inner and outer spheromaks that set the spheromak sizes and numbers of component electron charges. Increasing the number of electrons in a spheromak increases the toroidal magnetic field which reduces the Rc value. As the number of electrons in the outer spheromak increases eventually the Rc value of the outer spheromak falls below the Rs value of the inner spheromak and the two spheromaks merge.
At increasing radii from the nucleus the spheromak's linear size increases which reduces its toroidal magnetic field strength. The energy density in the radial electric field must be balanced by the toroidal magnetic field energy density at radii R = Rc and R = Rs. For the outer spheromak, at R = Rs, Z = 0 the radial electric field on the equatorial plane outside the spheromak wall is zero.
There are two types of chemical bonding, ionic bonding and co-valent bonding.
In ionic bonding an electron jumps from one atom to another and in so doing reduces the total energy of the two atoms. The resulting two atom molecule is bonded by an electric field and has a charge dipole.
In co-valent bonding atoms bond because electron spheromaks take the configuration corresponding to twice the individual nuclear charge. For example, pairs of hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen atoms co-valently bond to form a H2, N2 and O2 gas molecules. Carbon forms long chain molecules and benzene rings. In effect the electron spheromaks behave as if the two nuclei are nearly superimposed.
Two hydrogen atoms can bond together by forming a stable 2 electron spheromak in the He configuration.
In theory two boron atoms might co-valently bond by forming a stable 10 electron spheromak in the Ne configuration. However, boron is a solid at room temperature so this covalent bonding issue is seldom observed.
Carbon atoms can covalently bond to each other and to hydrogen atoms by sharing stable electron spheromaks. Similarly six carbon atoms can form stable aromatic rings that have alternating double and single bonds with one hydrogen atom or one extra carbon atom attached to each carbon ring atom.
In Methane (CH4) a carbon atom attaches to 4 hydrogen atoms via 4 He spheromaks. A fifth He spheromak is dedicagfed to the carbon atom. Alternatively the 10 electrons can form a stable Ne electron spheromak configuration.
In ethane (C2H6) two carbon atoms plus six hydrogen atoms (C2H6) provide 14 electrons consistent with 7 He spheromaks or a stable Ne spheromak plus 2 He spheromaks. In propane (C3H8) there are 20 electrons consistent with two stable Ne spheromaks.The benezene (C6H6) ring provides 30 electrons consistent with 3 stable Ne spheromaks. Thus hydrocarbon compounds can form bound together by various combinations of stable He and Ne spheromaks.
Two nitrogen atoms can co-valently bond by forming a stable 10 electron inner Ne spheromak surrounded by a 4 electron outer spheromak.
Two oxygen atoms can co-valently bond by forming a stable 10 electron Ne inner spheromak surrounded by a 6 electron outer spheromak.
In theory two fluorine atoms might co-valently bond by forming a stable 18 electron spheromak in the Ar electron configuration.
Stable co-valent bonding is limited to the low atomic number elements.
In a spheromak each net quantum electron charge has a characteristic current path length or frequency. In a multi-electron spheromak the change in spheromak energy per unit change in spheromak frequency is independent of the number of electrons forming the spheromak. Hence when two spheromaks merge the change in merged spheromak energy per unit change in frequency is unchanged. Hence the measured Planck constant is independent of the number of net quantum charges comprising the spheromak.
TOROIDAL MAGNETIC FIELD:
We need to consider the direction of the toroidal magnetic field with respect to the poloidal magnetic field of each spheromak as the relative directions of the toroidal magnetic fields will affect the tendency of adjacent spheromak pairs to merge to form stable structures.
This web page last updated April 22, 2021.
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